This database on medication and breastfeeding is a database of drugs to which breastfeeding mothers may be exposed. It was built by the National Library of medicine (NLM) and is in the public domain, accessible to anyone. Among the data included are maternal and infant levels of drugs, possible effects on breastfed infants and on lactation, and alternate drugs to consider.
Drug Levels and Effects:
Summary of Use during Lactation:
Because of the high serum levels found in breastfed infants and the possible negative effects on lactation, other agents may be preferred, especially while nursing a newborn or preterm infant.
In 9 women taking oral clonidine, milk levels were measured on 3 occasions: 1 to 5 days, 10 to 14 days and 45 to 60 days postpartum. Average daily dosages and approximate milk levels on the for the 3 measurements were 392 mcg/day and 1.8 mcg/L, 309 mcg/day and 2.9 mcg/L, and 242 mcg/day and 1.9 mcg/L. Using the average milk level data from this study, an exclusively breastfed infant would receive an estimated 4.1 to 8.4% of the maternal weight-adjusted dosage.
In a 4-week-postpartum mother, a milk level of 0.6 mcg/L was found in milk 2.5 hours after a dose while taking a clonidine dosage of 37.5 mcg orally twice daily. Based on this single milk level, the authors estimated that an exclusively breastfed infant would receive a maximum 6.8% of the maternal weight-adjusted dosage with this maternal dosage regimen.
In 3 women who received clonidine 150 mcg twice daily during pregnancy and postpartum, milk levels were measured 12 hours after their previous dose for the first 3 days postpartum. Milk clonidine levels ranged from 0.8 to 2.8 mcg/L.
A 4-week-old breastfed infant whose mother was taking clonidine 37.5 mcg orally twice daily had an undetectable (<96 ng/L) serum clonidine level 1 hour after nursing.
In the infants of 9 women taking clonidine, infant serum levels were measured on three occasions: 1 to 5 days, 10 to 14 days and 45 to 60 days postpartum. Average daily maternal dosages on the three measurements were 392 mcg/day, 309 mcg/day, and 242 mcg/day, respectively. At these times, the infants had serum clonidine concentrations of 0.69, 0.53 and 0.35 mcg/L, respectively. These values represent an average of about 66% of the simultaneous maternal serum levels.
Effects in Breastfed Infants:
No typical clonidine side effects (e.g., dry mouth, sedation) were seen in 9 infants whose mothers were taking clonidine, despite the infants' serum levels being about two-thirds that of their mothers'.
Three infants whose mothers were taking clonidine 150 mcg twice daily were breastfed. During the first 3 days postpartum, no adverse effects on blood glucose, electrocardiogram or blood pressure. The infants had normal growth and psychomotor development at 1 year of age, although the duration of breastfeeding and clonidine use was not stated.
Possible Effects on Lactation:
Clonidine has complex, dose-related actions on both oxytocin and prolactin secretion. The net effect of the drug on nursing mothers has not been well studied. A case of hyperprolactinemia and gynecomastia occurred in a 6-year-old boy taking clonidine for hyperactivity and valproic acid for a seizure disorder. Galactorrhea ceased within 3 weeks of discontinuing clonidine. A case of clonidine-induced postpartum galactorrhea has also been reported.
The maternal prolactin level in a mother with established lactation may not affect her ability to breastfeed.
Alternate Drugs to Consider:
1. Hartikainen-Sorri AL, Heikkinen JE, Koivisto M. Pharmacokinetics of clonidine during pregnancy and nursing. Obstet Gynecol. 1987;69:598-600. PMID:3822302
2. Bunjes R, Schaefer C, Holzinger D. Clonidine and breast-feeding. Clin Pharm. 1993;12:178-9. Letter. PMID:8491075
3. Boutroy MJ, Gisonna CR, Legagneur M. Clonidine: placental transfer and neonatal adaption. Early Hum Dev. 1988;17:275-86. PMID:3208682
4. Mendhekar DN. Clonidine-induced gynecomastia and hyperprolactinemia in a 6-year-old child. J Clin Psychiatry. 2005;66:1616-7. Letter. PMID:16401171
5. Heim J, Massart C, Auvray E et al. [Post-partum galactorrhea with persistent hyperprolactinaemia during a clonidine treatment]. Sem Hop. 1979;55:933-4. PMID:231318
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Disclaimer:Information presented in this database is not meant as a substitute for professional judgment. You should consult your healthcare provider for breastfeeding advice related to your particular situation. The U.S. government does not warrant or assume any liability or responsibility for the accuracy or completeness of the information on this Site.
Source: National Library of Medicine (NLM)