Ovulation is the release of an egg from the ovary. Ovulation is essential when trying to get pregnant and unless you are pregnant your period usually begins 14 days after ovulation. Ovulation occurs when an egg is released from the ovary, and is available to be fertilized. Fertilization with a sperm usually happens in the outer portion of the fallopian tube.
Key Facts of Ovulation:
- Normally one egg is released each time of ovulation
- Double ovulation, the release of more than one eggs, can happen, and if it happens it usually occurs within 24 hours of each other
- An egg lives 12-24 hours after leaving the ovary
- Ovulation can be affected by drugs or other medical factors
- The #1 cause of ovulation problems is PCOS - Polycystic ovary syndrome
- Some women may experience some light blood spotting during ovulation
- Implantation of a fertilized egg normally takes place 9 days after ovulation with a range of 6-12 days
- Each woman is born with millions of immature eggs (follicles) that are awaiting ovulation to begin, but at the time ovulation begins about 400,000 follicles are left
- You can bleed even without ovulation but that is not considered a normal menstrual period
- Ovulation can occur even if a menstrual period has not occurred
- Some women can feel a bit of pain or aching near the ovaries during ovulation called mittelschmerz, which means "middle pain" in German
- If an egg is not fertilized, it disintegrates and is absorbed into the uterine lining
- If you are not pregnant you usually bleed about 14 days after ovulation
The Menstrual Cycle Is Divided into Two Parts
The first part of the ovulation cycle is called the follicular phase. This phase starts the first day of the last menstrual period (LMP) and continues until ovulation. This first half of the cycle can differ greatly for each woman lasting anywhere from 7 days until 40 days. The second half of the cycle is called the luteal phase and is from the day of ovulation until the next period begins. The luteal phase has a more precise timeline and usually is only 12-16 days from the day of ovulation. This ultimately means that the day of ovulation will determine how long your cycle is. This also means that outside factors like stress, illness, and disruption of normal routine can throw off your ovulation which then results in changing the time your period will come. So the old thought that stress can affect your period is only partly true. Stress can affect your ovulation which ultimately determines when your period will come, but stress around the time of an expected period will not make it late -- it was already determined when it would come 12-16 days earlier!
Fertility Awareness is one way to track when ovulation occurs, and it includes studying the changes in cervical mucus and using a basal thermometer. Cervical fluid will change to a wet, slippery substance that resembles "egg whites" just before ovulation occurs and until ovulation is over. A basal thermometer helps track a body temperature rise, which signals that ovulation has just occurred.
Another way to track ovulation is through ovulation kits and fertility monitors. These can be Purchased Online. Tracking ovulation can help a woman get a better idea of when pregnancy can and cannot occur during her monthly cycle. Once ovulation has occurred, there is nothing you can do to increase your chances of pregnancy. Your next step is to begin watching for early pregnancy symptoms.
From the Menstrual Period to Ovulation (the details you may not know!)
When your menstrual cycle begins, your estrogen levels are low. Your hypothalamus (which is in charge of maintaining your hormone levels) sends out a message to your pituitary gland which then sends out the follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). This FSH triggers a few of your follicles to develop into mature eggs. One of these will develop into the dominant follicle, which will release a mature egg and the others will disintegrate. As the follicles mature they send out another hormone, estrogen. The high levels of estrogen will tell the hypothalamus and pituitary gland that there is a mature egg.
A luteinizing hormone (LH) is then released, referred to as your LH surge. The LH surge causes the egg to burst through the ovary wall within 24-36 hours and begin its journey down the fallopian tube for fertilization. The follicle from which the egg was released is called the corpus luteum, and it will release progesterone that helps thicken and prepare the uterine lining for implantation. The corpus luteum will produce progesterone for about 12-16 days (the luteal phase of your cycle.) If an egg is fertilized, the corpus luteum will continue to produce progesterone for a developing pregnancy until the placenta takes over. You can begin looking for pregnancy symptoms as early as a week after fertilization. If fertilization does not occur the egg dissolves after 24 hours.
At this time your hormone levels will decrease and your uterine lining will begin to shed about 12-16 days from ovulation. This is menstruation (menstrual period) and brings us back to day 1 of your cycle. The journey then begins all over again.
The time of ovulation is one of the most important things a woman should understand about her body, since it is the determining factor in getting pregnant and preventing pregnancy. The process can be confusing and somewhat overwhelming when trying to understand. The Association recommends using an ovulation kit or fertility monitor to maximize your chances and to confirm when your ovulation is occuring. There are many frequently asked questions about the ovulation process, and the Association has attempted to address those for you. If you still have further questions regarding ovulation, we encourage you to either talk with your healthcare provider or contact the American Pregnancy Association for more information. Being informed on what your body does can help you feel more in charge of your health.