Fertil Steril. 2011 Aug;96(2):314-320.e2. Epub 2011 Jun 30.

Birth outcomes of intended pregnancies among women who used assisted reproductive technology, ovulation stimulation, or no treatment.

D'Angelo DV, Whitehead N, Helms K, Barfield W, Ahluwalia IB.


Division of Reproductive Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, 4770 Buford Highway, NE Mailstop K-22, Atlanta, Georgia 30341, USA. [email protected]



To study birth outcomes among live born infants conceived by women who used infertility treatment.


Population-based surveillance of women who recently delivered a live infant.


The birth outcomes among infants whose mothers used assisted reproductive technology (ART) or ovulation stimulation medications alone were compared with the outcomes of infants conceived without treatment.


Stratified random sample of women who were attempting conception and gave birth to a live infant in six US states (n = 16,748).


Assisted reproductive technology and ovulation stimulation.


Adjusted odds ratios for perinatal outcomes.


The prevalence of infertility treatment use overall among women attempting conception was 10.9% (5.4% ART procedures, 5.5% ovulation stimulation medications). Singletons of mothers who received ART procedures were more likely to be born with low birthweight, preterm, and small for gestational age (SGA) than singleton infants conceived without treatment. Singleton infants of mothers who used ovulation stimulation medications alone were more likely to be SGA than singleton infants conceived without treatment. No differences were found between ART and no treatment twin infants.


Among singleton infants, ART is associated with decreased fetal growth, decreased gestational length, and SGA; ovulation stimulation alone is associated with SGA.