This Swedish study suggests that children of mothers with PCOS polycystic ovary syndrome have an increased risk of developing ASD autism spectrum disorder, regardless of sex. 

The authors of this study a matched case-control study nested within the total population of Sweden (children aged 4–17 who were born in Sweden from 1984 to 2007). The sample consisted of 23,748 ASD cases and 208,796 controls, matched by birth month and year, sex and region of birth. Maternal PCOS increased the odds of ASD in the offspring by 59%, after adjustment for confounders (odds ratio (OR) 1.59, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.34–1.88). The odds of offspring ASD were further increased among mothers with both PCOS and obesity, a condition common to PCOS that is related to more severe hyperandrogenemia (OR 2.13, 95% CI 1.46–3.10).  In conclusion, children of women with PCOS appear to have a higher risk of developing ASD.

Source: Molecular Psychiatry, 2015