• Virus in Pregnancy

Viral infections in pregnancy are major causes of newborn, mother and fetal diseases. Viral infections to the newborn can happen:

  • The clinical manifestations of neonatal infections vary depending on the viral agent and gestational age at exposure. The risk of infection is usually inversely related to gestational age at acquisition, some resulting in a congenital malformation syndrome.Before delivery (antepartum) through the placenta,
  • Around birth (peripartum) from vaginal secretions or blood,
  • After delivery (postpartum) from breast milk or other sources.

Infections known to produce congenital defects have been described with the acronym TORCH:

  • T=Toxoplasma, 
  • O=others 
  • R=rubella 
  • C=cytomegalovirus (CMV)
  • H=herpes

The "others" category has rapidly expanded to include several viruses known to cause neonatal disease.

Viral infections of concern during pregnancy were those caused by:

  • Rubella virus, 
  • Cytomegalovirus CMV
  • Herpes simplex virus (HSV)
  • Parvovirus B19 (B19V)
  • Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) Chickenpox
  • West Nile virus
  • Measles Virus (Rubeola)
  • Enteroviruses
  • Adenovirus
  • Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
  • Influenza virus H1N1
  • Human Papilomavirus (HPV)
  • Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV)
  • Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)
  • Hepatitis A virus
  • Hepatitis B virus
  • Hepatitis C virus
  • Hepatitis E virus
  • Roseola
  • Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV)
  • Enterovirus
  • Adenovirus
  • Echovirus
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