The Different Types of Surrogacy

What is surrogacy?

Surrogacy, often a legal agreement, is used when a person or couple cannot have a child. Whether they medically cannot have a child, are a same-sex couple, or a single parent, surrogacy allows them to become a parent.

Laws regarding surrogacy vary by country and state, therefore, it is essential to conduct thorough research prior. There are many different kinds of surrogacy, involving any combination of eggs and sperm. 

Gestational surrogacy (GS) 

A surrogate is implanted with an embryo created by IVF. The resulting child is genetically unrelated to the surrogate. There are several sub-types of gestational surrogacy as noted below.

Gestational surrogacy with an embryo from both intended parents (GS/IP) 

A surrogate is implanted with an embryo created by IVF, using the intended father's sperm and intended mother's eggs.

Gestational surrogacy and egg donation (GS/ED) 

A surrogate is implanted with an embryo created by IVF, using the intended father's sperm and a donor egg where the donor is not the surrogate. The resulting child is genetically related to the intended father and genetically unrelated to the surrogate.

Gestational surrogacy and donor sperm (GS/DS) 

A surrogate is implanted with an embryo created by IVF, using the intended mother's egg and donor sperm. The resulting child is genetically related to the intended mother and genetically unrelated to the surrogate.

Gestational surrogacy and donor embryo (GS/DE) 

A donor embryo is implanted in a surrogate; such embryos may be available when others undergoing IVF have embryos left over, which they opt to donate to others. The resulting child is genetically unrelated to the intended parent(s) and genetically unrelated to the surrogate.

Traditional surrogacy (TS) 

This involves naturally or artificially inseminating a surrogate with the intended father's sperm via IUI, IVF, or home insemination. With this method, the resulting child is genetically related to the intended father and genetically related to the surrogate.

Traditional surrogacy and donor sperm (TS/DS) 

A surrogate is artificially inseminated with donor sperm using ICI, IUI, or IVF. An ICI insemination may be performed privately by the parties without the intervention of a doctor or physician. The resulting child is genetically unrelated to the intended parent(s) but is genetically related to the surrogate. In many jurisdictions, the 'commissioning parents' will need to go through an adoption process in order to have legal rights with respect to the resulting child. Many fertility centers that provide for surrogacy will assist the parties through this process.

Read More:
Infertility Treatment Options
What Is Implantation?
Implantation Failure: When Embryos Don't Pass the Entrance Exam
IVF: Frozen Sperm vs. Fresh Sperm