What is surrogacy?

Surrogacy is when a woman agrees to become pregnant and carry the pregnancy and give birth to a child or children, all the foregoing for and on behalf of another person or persons. These persons will ultimately become the parent(s) of the newborn child or children. There are many different kinds of surrogacy, involving any combination of eggs and sperms.

Gestational Surrogacy (GS) 

A surrogate is implanted with an embryo created by IVF. The resulting child is genetically unrelated to the surrogate. There are several sub-types of gestational surrogacy as noted below.

Gestational surrogacy with an embryo from both intended parents (GS/IP) 

A surrogate is implanted with an embryo created by IVF, using intended father's sperm and intended mother's eggs.

Gestational surrogacy and egg donation (GS/ED) 

A surrogate is implanted with an embryo created by IVF, using intended father's sperm and a donor egg where the donor is not the surrogate. The resulting child is genetically related to the intended father and genetically unrelated to the surrogate.

Gestational surrogacy and donor sperm (GS/DS) 

A surrogate is implanted with an embryo created by IVF, using intended mother's egg and donor sperm. The resulting child is genetically related to the intended mother and genetically unrelated to the surrogate.

Gestational surrogacy and donor embryo (GS/DE) 

A donor embryo is implanted in a surrogate; such embryos may be available when others undergoing IVF have embryos left over, which they opt to donate to others. The resulting child is genetically unrelated to the intended parent(s) and genetically unrelated to the surrogate.

Traditional surrogacy (TS) 

This involves naturally[10] or artificially inseminating a surrogate with intended father's sperm via IUI, IVF or home insemination. With this method, the resulting child is genetically related to the intended father and genetically related to the surrogate.

Traditional surrogacy and donor sperm (TS/DS) 

A surrogate is artificially inseminated with donor sperm using ICI, IUI or IVF. An ICI insemination may be performed privately by the parties without the intervention of a doctor or physician. The resulting child is genetically unrelated to the intended parent(s) but is genetically related to the surrogate. In many jurisdictions, the 'commissioning parents' will need to go through an adoption process in order to have legal rights with respect to the resulting child. Many fertility centers which provide for surrogacy will assist the parties through this process.