Researchers from the University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences published a study in the Global Journal of Health Sciences regarding the use of universal questionnaires to research maternal lifestyle habits, often used to determine maternal/fetal risk, in cultures that do not conform to universal standards. For the sake of the study, 222 questions were pulled from previously published literature and narrowed to 160 questions for modification based on cultural standards.
Study authors were able to narrow a list of universally used questions from 222 to 160 and modify the questions for use in Iranian cultures. Researchers believe the same narrowing and modification can be used in other cultures to formulate a set of culturally universal questions to determine implications of maternal lifestyle habits on pregnancy.
Source: Mahmoodi Z, Karimlou M, Sajjadi H, Dejman M, Vameghi M. Development of Mother's Lifestyle Scale during Pregnancy with an Approach to Social Determinants of Health. Glob J Health Sci. 2013 Mar 31;5(3):208-19. doi: 10.5539/gjhs.v5n3p208.