What are teratogens?

Teratogens are any drugs, chemicals, X-rays, or anything else that can induce malformations in the fetus and/or lead to miscarriages. There are very few teratogens that are known to cause fetal malformations.

Here is the known list of teratogens:

  • Alcohol Androgens
  • Testosterone derivatives (for example, danazol)
  • Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors (for example, enalapril, and captopril)
  • Coumarin derivatives (for example, warfarin)
  • Carbamazepine
  • Folic acid antagonists (methotrexate and aminopterin)
  • Cocaine Diethylstilbestrol (DES)
  • Lead
  • Lithium
  • Organic mercury
  • Phenytoin
  • Streptomycin and kanamycin
  • Tetracycline
  • Thalidomide
  • Trimethadione and paramethadione
  • Valproic acid
  • Vitamin A and its derivatives (for example, isotretinoin, etretinate, and retinoids)
  • X-rays