What is endometriosis?

Endometriosis is a medical condition that affects the uterus, fallopian tubes, and sometimes other parts of the body. Endometrial tissue grows outside the uterus and can be located on the fallopian tubes, the ovaries, the bowels, bladder, and sometimes even behind the uterus, bowels or bladder.

The endometrial tissue outside the uterus builds up each month in response to the normal female hormonal cycle, just like the tissue inside the uterus, and at the end of the cycle it sheds and causes bleeding. But the endometrial tissue outside the uterus has no route for elimination, so the shedding can cause internal bleeding, inflammation, and subsequent scar tissue formation.

This "misplaced" tissue can cause pain, infertility and very heavy periods. The pain is usually in the abdomen, lower back or pelvic areas. Some women have no symptoms at all. Endometriosis can present as different symptoms, and some women have no symptoms at all. The best way to know if you have endometriosis is to visit a family practitioner, general internist or more accurately a gynecologist for diagnosis.

How does endometriosis affect fertility?

Having trouble getting pregnant is sometimes the first sign of endometriosis. Women often have difficulty conceiving since the endometriosis grows on the fallopian tubes. This can interfere with the normal function of the fallopian tubes and thus prevent fertilization by either preventing the egg from meeting the sperm or preventing the fertilized egg from moving down the fallopian tubes.

The growths can even rupture and spread to new areas of the body and a build-up of scar tissue can cause adhesions and obstructions.

What causes endometriosis?

The exact cause of endometriosis is not known, but pain medications and hormones can often help. Severe cases may require surgery. There are also treatments to improve fertility in women with endometriosis.

Read More:
The Role of Fallopian Tubes
Infertility Guide: Why Can't We Get Pregnant?