A long list of studies has been published linking paternal and maternal habits prior to and during pregnancy with fetal and child health outcomes. Researchers recently published another study showing a link between pre-pregnancy habits and health to female offspring long-term health. The study concentrates on the effect on anti-mullerian hormone (AMH) levels in female offspring; often considered a marker for future fertility. Information for the study was collected as part of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children in the United Kingdom. 

According to study authors, maternal smoking (before pregnancy and during pregnancy) had no effect on AMH levels, but paternal smoking leads to reduced AMH levels. Mothers who had a history of amenorrhea and/or irregular menstrual periods resulted in female offspring with higher AMH levels. Excessive maternal weight gain during pregnancy tended to cause lower AMH levels in female offspring. Other factors, including age, BMI and alcohol consumption of parents did not affect AMH levels. 

Results: Some paternal and maternal lifestyle choices, habits and health issues may directly affect fertility health of female offspring. 

Source: Fraser A, McNally W, Sattar N, Anderson EL, Lashen H, Fleming R, Lawlor DA, Nelson SM. Prenatal Exposures and Anti-Mullerian Hormone in Female Adolescents: The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Am J Epidemiol. 2013 Sep 5.