Operative Procedures in Pregnancy: Forceps, Vacuum, Episiotomy

    While the female body is perfectly created to give birth to children,
    there will be times when Mother Nature needs a bit of help. The use of
    operative procedures during a vaginal delivery is just like giving a
    little boost to mom’s birthing process. In order for a doctor to use an operative birthing tool, the cervix will need to be fully dilated and the baby will need to be able to move into the birth canal without disruption.

    Why Use an Operative Delivery?
    There are two main times when an operative delivery is chosen. If mom has been pushing for hours without any progression, the doctor may want to help mom by pulling on the baby while she pushes. Operative births are also used in cases where the baby is not progressing down the birth canal and when there are potential isues with baby's health.Obstetric Forceps

    The Forceps
    One of the most known operative tools used in vaginal deliveries are the forceps. The forceps are a large hinged tool that is formed to fit snugly around the head of the baby in the birthing canal. When mom can no longer push due to exhaustion, baby is too large for the vaginal opening or additional pushing is not advised due to some complication in labor, the forceps are used to pull the baby out of the vaginal canal. The use of forceps often requires an episiotomy or small incision in the perineal area.

    Due to the fact that the newborn skull is very pliable in order to fit into the birthing canal, the forceps will sometimes leave marks in the sides of the head. These marks will fade over time and the baby’s head will return to a normal, round shape.

    The Vacuum
    Along the same lines as the forceps, the vacuum offers mom a bit of help moving the baby down the birthing canal. The vacuum offers a large suction cup that is attached to the top of the baby’s head. The suction allowed the delivering doctor to pull baby while mom is pushing. The suction cup will often shape baby’s head into a cone shape that will round out with time.

    Most often if with the vacuum or the forceps and the baby still does not progress down the birthing canal, a C-section will be recommended for the health of both baby and mom.

    The Episiotomy
    It is true that labor requires something the size of a watermelon to fit through a hole the size of a lemon. The female vaginal canal and the vagina itself are able to stretch to great lengths in order to allow baby to move out of the body. There are times, however, that will require a bit of extra room.

    The episiotomy is a small incision placed at the bottom of the vaginal opening in order to give baby more space during birth. The incision can be made straight down towards the rectum (median episiotomy) or to the side (mediolateral episiotomy). The episiotomy will often require local anesthesia and stitches after the birthing process is complete.