What are the Next Steps in Genomic Research?

Discovering the sequence of the human genome was only the first step in understanding how the instructions coded in DNA lead to a functioning human being. The next stage of genomic research will begin to derive meaningful knowledge from the DNA sequence. ... read more »

What are Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs)?

Single nucleotide polymorphisms, frequently called SNPs (pronounced'snips'), are the most common type of genetic variation among people.Each SNP represents a difference in a single DNA building block, called a nucleotide. ... read more »

What is the International HapMap Project?

The International HapMap Project is an international scientific effort to identify common genetic variations among people. This project represents a collaboration of scientists from public and private organizations in six countries. ... read more »

What is the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) Project?

The ENCODE Project was planned as a follow-up to the Human Genome Project. The Human Genome Project sequenced the DNA that makes up the human genome; the ENCODE Project seeks to interpret this sequence. ... read more »

What Advances are Being Made in DNA Sequencing?

Determining the order of DNA building blocks (nucleotides) in anindividual's genetic code, called DNA sequencing, has advanced the study of genetics and is one method used to test for genetic disorders. ... read more »

Mitochondrial Diseases in Children a Thing of the Past?

Researchers from the NYSCF (New York Stem Cell Foundation) partnered with CUMC (Columbia Medical Center) to create a special technique to stop mitochondrial diseases from genetically passing on to children. The technique is in the earliest clinical stages. ... read more »

Geneticist Sequences Unborn Son’s Entire Genome, Just for Fun

From the moment he knew he was going to be a father, Khan wanted to sequence his baby’s DNA to know more about his genetic makeup. ... read more »

What Would You Do If Genetic Testing Revealed Future Illness?

What would you do if genetic testing revealed future catastrophic illness for yourself or a child? Would you want to know? ... read more »

Experts Recommend 3-Step Diagnostic Process for Autism

A new study of two different kinds of genetic tests identified ASD in a small number of patients, leading the test’s authors to recommend a 3-step diagnostic process when autism is suspected. ... read more »

Babies Leave Genetic Souvenirs in Mom's Body

A recent study from the Netherlands found Y-chromosomes, from baby boys, in every tissue sample they tested from the babys’ mothers. ... read more »

What are the Types of Genetic Tests?

Genetic testing can provide information about a person's genes and chromosomes. ... read more »

What is Pharmacogenomics?

This relatively new field combines pharmacology (the science of drugs)and genomics (the study of genes and their functions) to developeffective, safe medications and doses that will be tailored to aperson's genetic makeup. ... read more »

Fetal DNA Pulled from Mom’s Blood

According to a study published in the journal Nature, mom's blood may hold the key to DNA and genetic testing. This study could be the first step in making genetic testing a part of prenatal care for all women. ... read more »

UK Invites Public Comments on Proposed Three-Person IVF Law

The United Kingdom is deciding whether or not to add legal provisions to national law that will allow a new form of in vitro fertilization (IVF) to become a standard option for infertility treatments. ... read more »

What Is A Gene Mutation and How Do They Happen?

How does a gene mutation happen? Are gene mutations rare? ... read more »

DNA Methylation and Spontaneous Abortion After ART

At the Center for Reproductive Medicine at Nanfang Hospital in the People's Republic of China, researchers believed there was a possible link between assisted reproductive technology (ART) and spontaneous abortion caused by improper DNA methylation. ... read more »

Male DNA Found in Female Brains

When a woman becomes pregnant with a male child some of his DNA is left behind in her brain. Researchers call this microchimerism. ... read more »

Emerging 3-Parent IVF May be Harmful to Baby

About one person in every 4,000 is affected with a mitochondrialdisease, passed down through the mother's bloodline. Symptoms, including minor learning disabilities, can be mild but they can be tragicallysevere, too. ... read more »

Dad’s Biological Clock Just as Important as Mom’s

A major study that compared the psychiatric health and academicachievement of siblings gives strong support to the theory that dad'sbiological clock exists and may be just as important as mom's. ... read more »

Fetus Predetermined to Suffer Obesity or Heart Disease

Researchers at the Warwick Medical School have revealed a connection between life in the womb and obesity after birth. Healthier eating habits and regular vitamin intake may help reduce the risk of obesity late in life, according to the study. ... read more »

Healthy DNA Delay Menopause Extend Fertile Years

An extensive international study found that how the body handles DNA repair throughout a lifetime affects the timing of fertility decline and the onset of menopause. ... read more »

What is the Cost and How Long is the Genetic Testing?

The cost of genetic testing can range from under $100 to more than $2,000, depending on the nature and complexity of the test. ... read more »

1 in 6 Kids Suffers Neurodevelopmental Disorder

One in six American children suffers from a neurodevelopmental disorder, including but not limited to, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorders ASD), or delays in speech and language. ... read more »

Can Changes in Chromosomes Affect Health and Development?

Human cells normally contain 23 pairs of chromosomes, for a total of 46chromosomes in each cell. A change in the number of chromosomes can cause problems with growth, development, and function of the body's systems. ... read more »

Should Newborn Screening Protocols Include Genome Sequencing?

Researchers at McGill University in Montreal, Canada, question the value of including genome sequencing to the standard regimen of tests given to newborn babies. ... read more »

Third-Hand Smoke: DNA Damage Risk for Infants and Toddlers

Third-hand smoke, the gunk that settles on floors, furniture, draperies, and even kids' toys, has the potential to damage DNA. ... read more »

Genetic Testing to Prevent Fatal Brain Disease in Children

A 27-year-old woman wanted to have children but she did not want her children to live as she does, knowing she is genetically inclined to develop a very rare crippling brain disease. ... read more »

Effects of Steroids on Genome Expression of Preterm Infants

Steroids are prescribed to some women during pregnancy to treat potential preterm delivery. Researchers from the University of Oslo in Norway recently published a study spanning two years on the possible short and long-term side effects on genome expression. ... read more »

Cervicovaginal Microbiota Predicts Preterm Birth Risks

Researchers in Philadelphia report they may have found a way to pinpoint the risk of preterm delivery as early as the second trimester. ... read more »

Blood Test for Pregnant Women Shows RNA Activity in Fetus

Researchers at Stanford University in California have developed a test that uses a small sample of a pregnant woman's blood to monitor the RNA activity of a fetus throughout pregnancy. ... read more »

The Effect of Cryopreservation on Sperm

The process of cryopreservation allows human sperm carrying DNA to be frozen in time until the sperm is ready for use. Protecting the integrity of sperm and DNA is important to the success of fertility treatments. ... read more »

Common Genetic Conditions Due to Ethnicity

Some genetic disorders are more likely to occur among people who trace their ancestry to a particular geographic area. People in an ethnic group often share certain versions of their genes, which have been passed down from common ancestors. ... read more »

Can Number of Genes Affect Health and Development?

People have two copies of most genes, one copy inherited from each parent. In some cases, however, the number of copies varies'meaning that a person can be born with one, three, or more copies of particular genes. ... read more »

Reversing Damaged Eggs Due to Cancer Treatments

Researchers at Cornell University in Ithaca, New York, have found a way to reverse the damage done to the immature eggs (oocytes) of female mice exposed to radiation. ... read more »

How Chromosome Structure Affects Health and Development

Changes that affect the structure of chromosomes can cause problems with growth, development, and function of the body's systems. These changes can affect many genes along the chromosome and disrupt the proteins made from those genes. ... read more »

How Mitochondrial DNA Affects Health and Development

Mitochondria are structures within cells that convert the energy from food into a form that cells can use. Although most DNA is packaged in chromosomes within the nucleus, mitochondria also have a small amount of their own DNA. ... read more »

What Do Statistics Reveal About Genetic Conditions?

Statistical data can provide general information about how common a condition is, how many people have the condition, or how likely it is that a person will develop the condition. Statistics are not personalized, however, they offer estimates based on groups of people. ... read more »

How Do Genes Direct the Production of Proteins?

Most genes contain the information needed to make functional molecules called proteins. (A few genes produce other molecules that help the cell assemble proteins.) The journey from gene to protein is complex and tightly controlled within each cell. ... read more »

Genomic Research

Genomic Research ... read more »

The Likelihood of Genetic Disorders

When a genetic disorder is diagnosed in a family, family members often want to know the likelihood that they or their children will develop the condition. ... read more »

What Was the Human Genome Project?

The Human Genome Project was an international research effort to determine the sequence of the human genome and identify the genes that it contains. The Project was coordinated by the National Institutes of Health and the U.S. Department of Energy. ... read more »

Human Genome Project: Ethical, Legal, and Social Implications

The Ethical, Legal, and Social Implications (ELSI) program was founded in 1990 as an integral part of the Human Genome Project. ... read more »

How Is a Genetic Condition Inherited?

Some genetic conditions are caused by mutations in a single gene. These conditions are usually inherited in one of several straightforward patterns, depending on the gene involved. ... read more »

Possible Treatment Breakthrough: Fragile X Syndrome

Previous medical research has pinpointed the part of the cell affected by FXS but a new study reveals how the problem occurs. ... read more »

Customizing Genes Through Designer Sperm

Scientists have brought us a step closer to stopping genetic diseases before they pass from one generation to the next. ... read more »

Prenatal Testing for Down Syndrome

Around 11-13 weeks of the pregnancy, screening for Down syndrome is usually offered to all pregnant women. The test is known as the "first trimester screen" or nuchal translucency test. ... read more »

Where Can I Get DNA Paternity Testing?

There are two methods of DNA paternity testing - the doctor initiated paternity test and the home paternity test. ... read more »

How Much Does Paternity Testing Cost?

The cost of the paternity test will vary depending on the state where the test is run and the situation surrounding the paternity test. ... read more »

How Accurate is Paternity Testing?

Paternity testing is used to establish the biological paternal parent of a child. The paternity testing, like any other test, is close to 100% accurate but not completely 100%. ... read more »

Low Sperm Count

Can low sperm count be improved? One study says yes! ... read more »

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