According to the World Health Organization (WHO): Genetics is the study of heredity, while  Genomics is defined as the study of genes and their functions, and related techniques. Genomics is a relatively new term, being used more frequently since the mid-1990's. The main difference between genomics and genetics is that genetics scrutinizes the functioning and composition of the single gene whereas genomics addresses all genes and their inter relationships in order to identify their combined influence on the growth and development of the organism.

Genetic Consultation

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What are Reduced Penetrance and Variable Expressivity?

Reduced penetrance and variable expressivity are factors that influence the effects of particular genetic changes. These factors usually affect disorders that have an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance. ... read more »

Will Health Insurance Cover the Costs of Genetic Testing?

In many cases, health insurance plans will cover the costs ofgenetic testing when it is recommended by a person's doctor. Healthinsurance providers have different policies about which tests arecovered, however. ... read more »

What do Geneticists Mean by Anticipation?

The signs and symptoms of some genetic conditions tend to become more severe and appear at an earlier age as the disorder is passed from one generation to the next. This phenomenon is called anticipation. ... read more »

What are Genomic Imprinting and Uniparental Disomy?

Genomic imprinting and uniparental disomy are factors that influence how some genetic conditions are inherited. ... read more »

Are Chromosomal Disorders Inherited?

Although it is possible to inherit some types of chromosomal abnormalities, most chromosomal disorders (such as Down syndrome and Turner syndrome) are not passed from one generation to the next. ... read more »

What Kinds of Gene Mutations are Possible?

The DNA sequence of a gene can be altered in a number of ways. Gene mutations have varying effects on health, depending on where they occur and whether they alter the function of essential proteins. ... read more »

What is a Genetic Consultation?

A genetic consultation is a health service that provides information and support to people who have, or may be at risk for, genetic disorders. ... read more »

Why Might Someone Have a Genetic Consultation?

Individuals or families who are concerned about an inherited condition may benefit from a genetic consultation. The reasons that a person might be referred to a genetic counselor, medical geneticist, or other genetics professional include: ... read more »

What Happens During a Genetic Consultation?

A genetic consultation provides information, offers support, andaddresses a patient's specific questions and concerns. To help determine whether a condition has a genetic component, a genetics professionalasks about a person's medical history. ... read more »

What are Complex or Multifactorial Disorders?

Researchers are learning that nearly all conditions and diseases have a genetic component. Some disorders, such as sickle cell anemia and cystic fibrosis, are caused by mutations in a single gene. ... read more »

How are Genetic Conditions Diagnosed?

A doctor may suspect a diagnosis of a genetic condition on the basis of a person's physical characteristics and family history, or on theresults of a screening test. ... read more »

How are Genetic Conditions Treated or Managed?

Many genetic disorders result from gene changes that are present in essentially every cell in the body. As a result, these disorders often affect many body systems, and most cannot be cured. ... read more »

What is a Genome?

A genome is an organism's complete set of DNA, including all of itsgenes. Each genome contains all of the information needed to build andmaintain that organism. ... read more »

What Were the Goals of the Human Genome Project?

The main goals of the Human Genome Project were to provide a complete and accurate sequence of the 3 billion DNA base pairs that make up the human genome and to find all of the estimated 20,000 to 25,000 human genes. ... read more »

What Did the Human Genome Project Accomplish?

In April 2003, researchers announced that the Human Genome Project had completed a high-quality sequence of essentially the entire human genome. This sequence closed the gaps from a working draft of the genome, which was published in 2001. ... read more »

What are the Next Steps in Genomic Research?

Discovering the sequence of the human genome was only the first step in understanding how the instructions coded in DNA lead to a functioning human being. The next stage of genomic research will begin to derive meaningful knowledge from the DNA sequence. ... read more »

What are Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs)?

Single nucleotide polymorphisms, frequently called SNPs (pronounced'snips'), are the most common type of genetic variation among people.Each SNP represents a difference in a single DNA building block, called a nucleotide. ... read more »

What are the Benefits of Genetic Testing?

Genetic testing has potential benefits whether the results are positive or negative for a gene mutation. Test results can provide a sense of relief from uncertainty and help people make informed decisions about managing their health care. ... read more »

What are Genome-wide Association Studies?

Genome-wide association studies are a relatively new way for scientists to identify genes involved in human disease. ... read more »

Gene Therapy

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What are the Risks and Limitations of Genetic Testing?

The physical risks associated with most genetic tests are very small, particularly for those tests that require only a blood sample or buccal smear (a procedure that samples cells from the inside surface of the cheek). ... read more »

What is the International HapMap Project?

The International HapMap Project is an international scientific effort to identify common genetic variations among people. This project represents a collaboration of scientists from public and private organizations in six countries. ... read more »

The Human Genome Project

The Human Genome Project ... read more »

What is Genetic Discrimination?

Genetic discrimination occurs when people are treated differently by their employer or insurance company because they have a gene mutation that causes or increases the risk of an inherited disorder. ... read more »

What is the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) Project?

The ENCODE Project was planned as a follow-up to the Human Genome Project. The Human Genome Project sequenced the DNA that makes up the human genome; the ENCODE Project seeks to interpret this sequence. ... read more »

What is Genetic Ancestry Testing?

Genetic ancestry testing, or genetic genealogy, is a way for people interested in family history (genealogy) to go beyond what they can learn from relatives or from historical documentation. ... read more »

What is Gene Therapy?

Gene therapy is an experimental technique that uses genes to treator prevent disease. In the future, this technique may allow doctors totreat a disorder by inserting a gene into a patient's cells instead ofusing drugs or surgery. ... read more »

What Advances are Being Made in DNA Sequencing?

Determining the order of DNA building blocks (nucleotides) in anindividual's genetic code, called DNA sequencing, has advanced the study of genetics and is one method used to test for genetic disorders. ... read more »

How Does Gene Therapy Work?

Gene therapy is designed to introduce genetic material into cells to compensate for abnormal genes or to make a beneficial protein. ... read more »

Is Gene Therapy Safe?

Gene therapy is under study to determine whether it could be used to treat disease. Current research is evaluating the safety of gene therapy; future studies will test whether it is an effective treatment option. ... read more »

What are the Ethical Issues Surrounding Gene Therapy?

Because gene therapy involves making changes to the body's set of basicinstructions, it raises many unique ethical concerns. ... read more »

Is Gene Therapy Available to Treat My Disorder?

Gene therapy is currently available only in a research setting. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has not yet approved any gene therapy products for sale in the United States. ... read more »

Genetic Testing

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What is Pharmacogenomics?

This relatively new field combines pharmacology (the science of drugs)and genomics (the study of genes and their functions) to developeffective, safe medications and doses that will be tailored to aperson's genetic makeup. ... read more »

What Is A Gene Mutation and How Do They Happen?

How does a gene mutation happen? Are gene mutations rare? ... read more »

Familial Dysautonomia

Familial Dysautonomia, also known as Riley-Day syndrome, affects the development and function of nerves throughout the body. ... read more »

Walker Warburg Syndrome

WWS, also known as Walker Warburg Syndrome, is a genetic condition passed on to children of parents with two recessive genes. Both parents must have the recessive gene for children to be born with the condition. ... read more »

What is the Cost and How Long is the Genetic Testing?

The cost of genetic testing can range from under $100 to more than $2,000, depending on the nature and complexity of the test. ... read more »

Can Changes in Chromosomes Affect Health and Development?

Human cells normally contain 23 pairs of chromosomes, for a total of 46chromosomes in each cell. A change in the number of chromosomes can cause problems with growth, development, and function of the body's systems. ... read more »

Common Genetic Conditions Due to Ethnicity

Some genetic disorders are more likely to occur among people who trace their ancestry to a particular geographic area. People in an ethnic group often share certain versions of their genes, which have been passed down from common ancestors. ... read more »

Can Number of Genes Affect Health and Development?

People have two copies of most genes, one copy inherited from each parent. In some cases, however, the number of copies varies'meaning that a person can be born with one, three, or more copies of particular genes. ... read more »

How Chromosome Structure Affects Health and Development

Changes that affect the structure of chromosomes can cause problems with growth, development, and function of the body's systems. These changes can affect many genes along the chromosome and disrupt the proteins made from those genes. ... read more »

How Mitochondrial DNA Affects Health and Development

Mitochondria are structures within cells that convert the energy from food into a form that cells can use. Although most DNA is packaged in chromosomes within the nucleus, mitochondria also have a small amount of their own DNA. ... read more »

What Do Statistics Reveal About Genetic Conditions?

Statistical data can provide general information about how common a condition is, how many people have the condition, or how likely it is that a person will develop the condition. Statistics are not personalized, however, they offer estimates based on groups of people. ... read more »

How Do Genes Direct the Production of Proteins?

Most genes contain the information needed to make functional molecules called proteins. (A few genes produce other molecules that help the cell assemble proteins.) The journey from gene to protein is complex and tightly controlled within each cell. ... read more »

What Was the Human Genome Project?

The Human Genome Project was an international research effort to determine the sequence of the human genome and identify the genes that it contains. The Project was coordinated by the National Institutes of Health and the U.S. Department of Energy. ... read more »

How Is a Genetic Condition Inherited?

Some genetic conditions are caused by mutations in a single gene. These conditions are usually inherited in one of several straightforward patterns, depending on the gene involved. ... read more »

Human Genome Project: Ethical, Legal, and Social Implications

The Ethical, Legal, and Social Implications (ELSI) program was founded in 1990 as an integral part of the Human Genome Project. ... read more »

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